Apprentices references

1. See p29 footnote in Department for Education (March 2019), Providers’ Finances: Evidence from the Survey of Childcare and Early Years Providers 2018 Research Report. Available online:

2. For an accessible summary of the biology and psychology of fatherhood watch Becoming Dad: the Science of Fatherhood by Dr Anna Machin

3. Burgess, A. & Davies, J., (2017). Cash or Carry? Fathers combining work and care in the UK (Ful Report). Contemporary Fathers in the UK series. Marlborough: Fatherhood Institute. Available online:

4. Reed in Partnership (2019) Shifting Stereotypes: Gender and job roles. Available online:

5. See for example Taylor, E. & Scott, J. (2018) Gender: New consensus or continuing battleground? in Phillips, D., Curtice, J., Phillips, M. and Perry, J. (eds.) (2018), British Social Attitudes: The 35th Report, London: The National Centre for Social Research. Available online:

6. Rolfe, H. (2005). Men in Childcare. Working Paper no. 35. London: Equal Opportunities Commission.

7. See Martino, W. and Berrill, D. (2003) Boys, schooling and masculinities: interrogating the ‘right’ way to educate boys, Education Review, 55 (2) , 99-117, and Jones, A. (2004) Risk Anxiety, Policy, and the Spectre of Sexual Abuse in early Childhood Education, Discourse: studies in the cultural politics of education 25 (3) , 321- 334.

8. In a Department for Education survey, 10% of parents said they were ‘neutral’ about the idea of men working in early years, 6% ‘unsure’ and 5% opposed; 8% said male staff should not have the same duties and responsibilities as female colleagues. See Davies, J. (2019) The MITEY guide to communicating with parents about male staff. London: Fatherhood Institute.

9.  Cremers, M., Krabel, J., and Calmbach, M. (2010 ) Male Educators in Kitas. A study on the situation of men in early childhood education. Catholic University of applied social sciences Berlin and Sinus Sociovision GmbH, Heidelberg/Berlin.

10.  Burgess & Davies (see footnote 3 above).

11. Figures compiled by MITEY. For a fuller narrative and references see

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